Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology

Volume 3 Number 1, 2001

Water treatment for hemodialysis

Matthew Ka-Hang TONG, Wei WANG, Tze-Hoi KWAN, Lawrence CHAN, Tak-Cheung AU

Water treatment plays a vital role in the delivery of safe and effective hemodialysis (HD). Ensuring that water quality meets the American Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation standards and recommendations (or equivalent) is necessary to reduce the incidence of chemical hazards and endotoxemia associated with the use of water for HD. This review will discuss the principles of water treatment for HD, the essential components of water purification, the recommended system monitoring and maintenance procedures, and some of the historical incidents of adverse reactions that resulted from the use of contaminated dialysis water. (Hong Kong J Nephrol 2001;3(1):7-14)

Key words: Dialysis solutions, Hemodialysis (HD), Pyrogenic reactions, Reverse osmosis (RO), Water purification


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